Electronics

Introducing Snohomish County Electronics Hobbyist Association

I have built this website in hopes of forming a Snohomish County (North Seattle/Everett) electronics club.

The Snohomish County Electronics Hobbyist Association

I hope to grow at least a small group of interested people for meetings.. then if we have enough interest a HackerSpace, maybe some classes, etc could follow.

Contact me if you’d like to get in on the action and help me put this together.

Uncategorized

Snohomish County HackerSpace/MakerSpace?

I wonder if there is any interest in setting up a North Seattle/SnoCo hackspace? I’m talking Lynnwood, Bothell, Everett area? Or perhaps even just an “electronics-embedded dev club” of sorts. Everything in the Seattle area is seemingly below I-90. Primary interests would be electronics, embedded development, perhaps some machining.

Send me a message or reply if you have any interest or even if you live north of Seattle and think it’s a poor idea for some reason?

 

Analog Electronics Radio RF

Amidon Toriod Experimenter Kits

I have been pushing myself to build some IF filters. I’ve never built a front end of a radio; VCO, mixer, filters.. none of it. I started by buying the Amidon Toroid Experimenters kit #2 and #3 as many of the ARRL handbook samples use Amidon part numbers. I ended up switching to another book to do all my research though; “Secrets of RF Design”. Let me let you in on the secret.. it’s a lot of reading, not all of it stimulating. I also bought the “Island Cutter” from QRPme which is probably one of my favorite purchases of the year… armed with that I started building circuits.

If you’re working about purchasing the Amidon Experimenter Kits.. well I have no regrets. It gave me a good selection of options and even some larger one’s I don’t know when I will use but maybe for a switching supply project or something. I ordered a few other small pieces I knew I’d need more than 4 of just to have them on hand.

Amidon Toroid Kits

I really enjoy the circuits around varactor diodes. I’m building an analog front end but for stability I might just end up wwitching to DDS later on but for now for the VCO is a tank circuit. Next step is the mixer..

Varactor Tank Circuit Fun

 

I probably should still be working on other things, I have a pile of “to-do”s but I needed a little inspiration to keep me at the bench after all this summer fun. My last summer outing is a 7 day backpacking trip in the northern cascades packrafting! That’ll be some seriously needed unplug time. So stay tuned… I ordered about ~$500 worth of electronics for all my up-coming fun.. looking forward to digging into it. I still need to buy an LCR meter, I’ve never owned one and it would be nice to know my inductors is/are “in the ball field” when I wind something using the tables… I can do the math but I think it’d still be nice for a confirmation before I start soldering and making measurements.

C Electronics GPS PIC Time

WWVB signal generated from GPS

I sat at the bench this morning waiting for the inspiration to continue on with a project I’m working on with Francesco; I gave in to procrastination.

I wrote some assembler code to generate WWVB signal from a PIC a few months ago, remember? That stirred some interest from overseas folks looking for a way for their automatically update their “atomic” watches… apparently there isn’t some NTP device or anything else easily found to be purchased to do this. I was asked to do this NTP, but I’ll leave that for someone with a ‘Pi–I gave mine away to a kid. I did this project using GPS and a PIC micro.

It’s a pretty simple setup, gobble up a GPRMC sentence, pick off the data I need and spit out time. I generate 60KHz with the PWM module within the PIC (okay it’s 62KHz, but that should be close enough).. switch it through a 4066 to generate my time code.

GPRMC: there are other sentences you can use, but my cheapo module only spits out 4 sentences and GPRMC is the only one with time and date, so it’ll do. I re-used my GPGGA parsing code.. there is probably some left-overs in there if you look at the code below. I also dump the working string (first 63 bits of GPGGA) followed by the day number of the year which is calculated on the the UART, pick it up off the TX line @ 9,600 baud.. It’s spits it out about once a minute (in between time transmissions). I ended up using some DOY code online because I found some nice code that included determining if it was a leap year for day-of-year determination; I left the URL in the code.

The code isn’t finished nor is it accurate: it doesn’t recognize the valid data bit yet, and just spits out time whenever it feels like it so the time can be off by up to 59 seconds. I’ll work on this later on since I was just looking for proof of concept so I could get the hardware going and off a breadboard. I built up the circuit in eagle.. I’ll check it a few more times and have a couple PCBs made for round one of testing. The prototype was built on a Tautic 18F26K22 dev board, I considered just having the dev board plug-in but that’s probably a waste of $$.

You’ll note the SMA jack, perhaps this is over kill since I’ll never have a good enough antenna to match 60KHz… I don’t really know what to do with that yet, wire antenna for now I suppose. (version 2?) It’s likely illegal to sell these since it’s purposefully broadcasting, fat chance I’m doing the research beyond the FCC. I’ll look it up tomorrow but I suspect Part 15 doesn’t apply to 60KHz.

Version 1 of the GPS>WWVB board
Version 1 of the GPS>WWVB board

 

The code is a total hack job.. poorly documented, perhaps even incorrectly documented. I know I have “place-holder” functions.. but like I said..  it was a start to get my time code and it was close enough for testing; you get what you pay for! :)

 

/*
 * File:   main.c
 * Author: Charles M Douvier
 * Contact at: http://iradan.com / 0xEE.net / @chasxmd
 * Created on April 4th, 2014
 *
 * Target Device: 18F26K22
 *
 * Project: GPS --> WWVB simulator
 *
 * This version uses the GPRMC block
 * This is a limitation because GPRMC doesn't pass seconds
 * The time passed will always be up to 60 seconds off
 * I have to deterine DDMMYY --> Day of year, year
 * No simple leap year info in GPS :(
 *
 * TODO
 * Determine GPS lock and output to LED
 * Consider re-writing how I am writing my time code
 *
 * I'll re-write this sometime with a better (more expensive) GPS module.
 *
 * Version:
 * 0.1      First build I could prove I had GPS lock
 * 0.2      Output time/date on 232
 *
 */
#ifndef _XTAL_FREQ
#define _XTAL_FREQ 8000000 //4Mhz FRC internal osc
#define __delay_us(x) _delay((unsigned long)((x)*(_XTAL_FREQ/4000000.0)))
#define __delay_ms(x) _delay((unsigned long)((x)*(_XTAL_FREQ/4000.0)))
#endif

#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 


//config bits
#pragma config FOSC=INTIO67, WDTEN=OFF, PWRTEN=OFF, CP0=OFF, CP1=OFF, BOREN=ON
#pragma config STVREN=ON, LVP=OFF, HFOFST=OFF, IESO=OFF, FCMEN=OFF

//WRT=OFF, FOSC=INTOSC, MCLRE=ON

#define _XTAL_FREQ 8000000 //defined for delay

    char    ctxt[120], wstr[120];            //buff NMEA string, working string
    char    str1[20], str2[20], c, latstr, lonstr, setstr, doych[8];
    char    hourch[3], minch[3], secch[3], daych[3], monthch[3], yearch[3];
    char buffer[32] = "none";                        //temp dump
    volatile unsigned int     ping, isrcall, index, reading, new_rx;
    int     ready, gpgga, gprmc, mode;        //gps associated vars
    int     leap_year, dayint, monthint, yearint, year4int, secondint, minuteint, hourint;
    long    doy;
    int     min_40, min_20, min_10, min_8, min_4, min_2, min_1;
    int     hour_20, hour_10, hour_8, hour_4, hour_2, hour_1;
    int     doy_200, doy_100, doy_80, doy_40, doy_20, doy_10;
    int     doy_8, doy_4, doy_2, doy_1, leapint;
    int     year_80, year_40, year_20, year_10, year_8, year_4, year_2, year_1;

    //char    *rxdata;
    //volatile unsigned int uart_data;    // use 'volatile' qualifer as this is changed in ISR

/*
 *  Interrupt Service
 */
void interrupt ISR() {

   if (PIR1bits.RCIF){          // see if interrupt caused by incoming data

        isrcall = 0x01;
        char temp;
        temp = RCREG1;     // read the incoming data
        if(temp=='$' && new_rx==0)      //if first char of a GPS string..
        {
            index = 0;                  //reset index
            reading = 1;                //from now on go to else if
        }
        else if(reading == 1)           //in middle of GPS sentence
        {
            ctxt[index] = temp;         //load it up
            index++;                    //increment index
            ping = 1;                   //this is for debugging
            if(index > 63)              //thats more than enough data
                {
                index = 0;              //reset index
                reading = 0;            //no longer storing the string
                new_rx = 1;             //"ding"
                }
        }


   }
}


/*
 * Set up my ports
 */
void init_io(void) {
    // This code before the TRIS setup is for switching the RX2/TX2 to proper pins for the dev board
    INTCONbits.GIE = 0;         //no interruptions please

    LATA = 0x00;

    TRISAbits.TRISA0 = 0; //Onboard LED
    TRISAbits.TRISA1 = 0; //LED
    TRISAbits.TRISA2 = 0; //MCU (ON)
    TRISAbits.TRISA3 = 1; // input
    TRISAbits.TRISA4 = 1; // input
    TRISAbits.TRISA5 = 1; // input
    TRISAbits.TRISA6 = 1; // input
    TRISAbits.TRISA7 = 1; // input


    TRISBbits.TRISB0 = 0; // output
    TRISBbits.TRISB1 = 0; // output
    TRISBbits.TRISB2 = 0; // PWM1B
    TRISBbits.TRISB3 = 0; // output
    TRISBbits.TRISB4 = 0; // SCK
    TRISBbits.TRISB5 = 0; // PWM1C
    TRISBbits.TRISB6 = 0; // SCK
    TRISBbits.TRISB7 = 1; // input

    LATC = 0x00;

    TRISCbits.TRISC0 = 0; // N/W
    TRISCbits.TRISC1 = 0; // S/E
    TRISCbits.TRISC2 = 0; // PWM1A (output to 4066 control)
    TRISCbits.TRISC3 = 1; // MODE SELECT (LAT/LONG)
    TRISCbits.TRISC4 = 1; // SET INPUT
    TRISCbits.TRISC5 = 1; // input
    TRISCbits.TRISC6 = 1; // input
    TRISCbits.TRISC7 = 1; // input

    ADCON0 = 0b00000000;        //don't need any ADC
    ADCON1 = 0b00000000;        //speed Vref=AVdd, VssRef=AVss

    ANSELA = 0x00;
    ANSELB = 0x00;
    ANSELC = 0x00;
}

void uart_xmit(unsigned int mydata_byte) {  //send a character to the UART
    while(!TXSTA1bits.TRMT);    // make sure buffer full bit is high before transmitting
    TXREG1 = mydata_byte;       // transmit data
}

void uart_write(const char *txt)            //sent a multiple characters
{
    while(*txt != 0) uart_xmit(*txt++);     //this send a string to the TX buffer
                                            //one character at a time
}


void serial_init(void)
{
    //9600 8N1


    TXSTA1bits.BRGH=1;       // select low speed Baud Rate
    TXSTA1bits.TX9=0;        // select 8 data bits
    TXSTA1bits.TXEN = 1;     // enable transmit


    RCSTA1bits.SPEN=1;       // serial port is enabled
    RCSTA1bits.RX9=0;        // select 8 data bits
    RCSTA1bits.CREN=1;       // receive enabled

    SPBRG1=51;  // here is calculated value of SPBRGH and SPBRGL
    SPBRGH1=0;

    PIR1bits.RCIF=0;        // make sure receive interrupt flag is clear

    __delay_ms(50);        // give time for voltage levels on board to settle
    uart_write("RESET");         // transmit some data for testing

}


void pwm_init(){
//
//Take care if setting up the PWM pins (DISBALE A/D, etc)
//
//Select the 8-bit TimerX resource, (Timer2,Timer4 or Timer6) to be used for PWM generation
//by setting the CxTSEL bits in the CCPTMRSx register.(1)
//
//Load the PRx register for the selected TimerX with the PWM period value.
//
//Configure the CCP module for the PWM mode by loading the CCPxCON register with the
//appropriate values.
//
//Load the CCPRxL register and the DCxB bits of the CCPxCON register, with the PWM
//duty cycle value.
//

//    CCPR1L = 0x120;
    CCPR1Lbits.CCPR1L = 0x01;       //PWM duty cycle
    //CCPR2Lbits.CCPR2L = 0xCE;       //PWM duty cycle
    //CCPR3Lbits.CCPR3L = 0xCE;       //PWM duty cycle
    PR2 = 0x01;                     //Timer 2 Prescale
    //PR4 = 0xFF;                     //Timer 4 Prescale
    //PR6 = 0xFF;                     //Timer 6 Prescale
    CCPTMRS0bits.C1TSEL = 0x00;     //PWM1 TMR2 Selection
    //CCPTMRS0bits.C2TSEL = 0x01;     //PWM2 TMR4 Selection
    //CCPTMRS0bits.C3TSEL = 0x02;     //PWM3 TMR6 Selection
    CCP1CONbits.P1M = 0x00;         //single output mode
    CCP1CONbits.DC1B = 0x00;
    PWM1CONbits.P1RSEN = 0;
    PWM1CONbits.P1DC = 0x00;    //dead band delay
    ECCP1ASbits.CCP1AS = 0x00;
    ECCP1ASbits.CCP1ASE = 0;    //Auto-shutdown off
    CCP1CONbits.CCP1M = 0x0C;   //PWM Mode
    //CCP2CONbits.CCP2M = 0x0C;   //PWM Mode
    //CCP3CONbits.CCP3M = 0x0C;   //PWM Mode
    PSTR1CONbits.STR1A = 1;
    PSTR1CONbits.STR1B = 1;


    //T2CONbits.T2OUTPS = 0x0F;      //post scaler
    T2CONbits.T2CKPS = 2;       //16x prescaler
    //T4CONbits.T4CKPS = 2;
    //T6CONbits.T6CKPS = 2;
    T2CONbits.TMR2ON = 1;       //Turn the Timers On...
    //T4CONbits.TMR4ON = 1;
    //T6CONbits.TMR6ON = 1;



}


/*
 *  Append a string with a character
 *  append(str, c);
 */


//taken from http://stackoverflow.com/questions/19377396/c-get-day-of-year-from-date

int yisleap(int year)
{
    return (year % 4 == 0 && year % 100 != 0);
}

int get_yday(int mon, int day, int year)
//use: int day = get_yday(1, 31, 2013);
{
    static const int days[2][13] = {
        {0, 0, 31, 59, 90, 120, 151, 181, 212, 243, 273, 304, 334},
        {0, 0, 31, 60, 91, 121, 152, 182, 213, 244, 274, 305, 335}
    };
    int leap = yisleap(year);
    leapint = leap;

    return days[leap][mon] + day;
}

void append(char* s, char c)
{
        int len = strlen(s);
        s[len] = c;
        s[len+1] = '\0';
}

void marker(void){
    //send a marker frame - 800ms off, 200 ms on
    LATBbits.LATB0 = 0;
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);

    LATBbits.LATB0 = 1;
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    LATBbits.LATB0 = 0;
}

void one(void){
    //send a one - 500 ms off, 500 ms on
    LATBbits.LATB0 = 0;
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    LATBbits.LATB0 = 1;
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
}

void zero(void){
    //send a zero - 200ms off, 800ms on
    LATBbits.LATB0 = 0;
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    LATBbits.LATB0 = 1;
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
    __delay_ms(50);
}



void sendtime(void){

    /*
    *;0
    xCALL    MARKER                      ;MARKER FRAME REFERENCE BIT
    xCALL    ONE                         ;40min
    xCALL    ZERO                        ;20min
    xCALL    ZERO                        ;10min
    xCALL    ZERO                        ;Reserved
    xCALL    ZERO                        ;8mins
    xCALL    ZERO                        ;4mins
    xCALL    ONE                         ;2mins
    xCALL    ZERO                        ;1mins
    xCALL    MARKER                      ;MARKER 1
     */

    marker();                       //marker, frame reference

    if (minuteint >= 40){           //40min
        minuteint = minuteint - 40;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    if (minuteint >= 20){           //20min
        minuteint = minuteint - 20;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    if (minuteint >= 10){           //10min
        minuteint = minuteint - 10;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }    
    zero();                        //reserved (zero)
    if (minuteint >= 8){           //8min
        minuteint = minuteint - 8;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }    
    if (minuteint >= 4){           //4min
        minuteint = minuteint - 4;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }    
    if (minuteint >= 2){           //2min
        minuteint = minuteint - 2;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }    
    if (minuteint >= 1){           //1min
        minuteint = minuteint - 1;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }    
    marker();                       //marker 1
    
    /*
    ;10
    xCALL    ZERO                        ;RESERVED
    xCALL    ZERO                        ;RESERVED
    xCALL    ZERO                        ;20hours
    CALL    ZERO                        ;10hours
    CALL    ZERO                        ;RESERVED
    CALL    ZERO                        ;8hours
    CALL    ONE                         ;4hours
    CALL    ONE                         ;2hours
    CALL    ZERO                        ;1hour
    CALL    MARKER                      ;MARKER 2     
     */
    zero();                         //reserved
    zero();                         //reserved
    if (hourint >= 20){           //20 hours
        hourint = hourint - 20;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }       
    if (hourint >= 10){           //10 hours
        hourint = hourint - 10;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }  
    zero();                         //reserved    
    if (hourint >= 8){           //8 hours
        hourint = hourint - 8;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }  
    if (hourint >= 4){           //4 hours
        hourint = hourint - 4;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }  
    if (hourint >= 2){           //2 hours
        hourint = hourint - 2;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }  
    if (hourint >= 1){           //1 hours
        hourint = hourint - 1;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }  
    marker();                       //marker 2    
    /*
     * 
;20
    CALL    ZERO                        ;RESERVED
    CALL    ZERO                        ;RESERVED
    CALL    ZERO                        ;200 day of year
    CALL    ONE                         ;100 day of year
    CALL    ZERO                        ;RESERVED
    CALL    ZERO                        ;80 day of year
    CALL    ONE                         ;40 day of year
    CALL    ZERO                        ;20 day of year
    CALL    ONE                         ;10 day of year
    CALL    MARKER                      ;MARKER 3
     */
    zero();                         //reserved
    zero();                         //reserved
    if (doy >= 200){           //200th day
        doy = doy - 200;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }           
    if (doy >= 100){           //100th day
        doy = doy - 100;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }   
    zero();                         //reserved
    if (doy >= 80){           //80th day
        doy = doy - 80;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }      
    if (doy >= 40){           //40th day
        doy = doy - 40;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }   
    if (doy >= 20){           //20th day
        doy = doy - 20;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    } 
    if (doy >= 10){           //10th day
        doy = doy - 10;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }     
    marker();                       //marker 3

/*
 ;30
    CALL    ONE                         ;8 day of year
    CALL    ZERO                        ;4 day of year
    CALL    ZERO                        ;2 day of year
    CALL    ZERO                        ;1 day of year
    CALL    ZERO                        ;RESERVED
    CALL    ZERO                        ;RESERVED
    CALL    ZERO                        ;UTI Sign +
    CALL    ZERO                        ;UTI Sign -
    CALL    ZERO                        ;UTI Sign +
    CALL    MARKER                      ;MARKER 4
 */

     if (doy >= 8){           //8th day
        doy = doy - 8;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    if (doy >= 4){           //4th day
        doy = doy - 4;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    if (doy >= 2){           //2nd day
        doy = doy - 2;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    if (doy >= 1){           //1st day
        doy = doy - 1;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    zero();                         //reserved
    zero();                         //reserved
    zero();                         //reserved
    zero();                         //reserved
    zero();                         //reserved
    marker();                       //marker 4

    /*
   ;40
    CALL    ZERO                        ;UTI Corr 0.8s
    CALL    ZERO                        ;UTI Corr 0.4s
    CALL    ZERO                        ;UTI Corr 0.2s
    CALL    ZERO                        ;UTI Corr 0.1s
    CALL    ZERO                        ;RESERVED
    CALL    ZERO                        ;80 year yearint
    CALL    ZERO                        ;40 year
    CALL    ZERO                        ;20 year
    CALL    ONE                         ;10 year
    CALL    MARKER                      ;MARKER 5
     */

    zero();                         //reserved
    zero();                         //reserved
    zero();                         //reserved
    zero();                         //reserved
    zero();                         //reserved

    if (yearint >= 80){           //80th year
        yearint = yearint - 80;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    if (yearint >= 40){           //40th year
        yearint = yearint - 40;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    if (yearint >= 20){           //20th year
        yearint = yearint - 20;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    if (yearint >= 10){           //10th year
        yearint = yearint - 10;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    marker();                       //marker 5

/*
     *
;50
    CALL    ZERO                        ;8 year
    CALL    ONE                         ;4 year
    CALL    ONE                         ;2 year
    CALL    ZERO                        ;1 year
    CALL    ZERO                        ;RESERVED
    CALL    ZERO                        ;LEAP YEAR TRUE
    CALL    ZERO                        ;LEAP SEC WARN
    CALL    ONE                        ;DST
    CALL    ONE                        ;DST
    CALL    MARKER                        ;FRAME BIT P0
    *
*/

    if (yearint >= 8){           //8th year
        yearint = yearint - 8;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    if (yearint >= 4){           //4th day
        yearint = yearint - 4;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    if (yearint >= 2){           //2nd day
        yearint = yearint - 2;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    if (yearint >= 1){           //1st day
        yearint = yearint - 1;
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    zero();                         //reserved

                                     //leap year
    if (leapint){
        one();
    }else {
        zero();
    }
    zero();
    zero();                         //leap sec warn
    zero();                         //dst??
    zero();                         //dst
    marker();                       //frame bit P0
}

void gettime(void){
    
    hourch[0] = wstr[6];      //HHMMSS
    hourch[1] = wstr[7];

    minch[0] = wstr[8];
    minch[1] = wstr[9];

    secch[0] = wstr[10];
    secch[1] = wstr[11];

    daych[0] = wstr[56];     //DAY1  DDMMYY
    daych[1] = wstr[57];     //DAY2

    monthch[0] = wstr[58];     //MONTH1
    monthch[1] = wstr[59];     //MONTH2

    yearch[0] = wstr[60];     //YEAR1
    yearch[1] = wstr[61];     //YEAR2

    uart_write(wstr);

    uart_write(" ");

   hourint = atoi(hourch);
   minuteint = atoi(minch);
   secondint= atoi(secch);

   dayint = atoi(daych);
   monthint = atoi(monthch);
   yearint = atoi(yearch);

   year4int = yearint + 2000;

   doy = get_yday(monthint, dayint, yearint);

   ltoa(doych,doy,10);

   uart_write(doych);

    uart_write("\r");
}

void lon(void){

}

void determine_mode(void){  //determine lat or long mode

}


int main(void) {

    // set up oscillator control register, using internal OSC at 8MHz.
    OSCCONbits.IRCF = 0x06; //set OSCCON IRCF bits to select OSC frequency 8MHz
    OSCCONbits.SCS = 0x02; //set the SCS bits to select internal oscillator block
    __delay_ms(70);         //lets think about life a bit before proceeding..
    __delay_ms(70);
    __delay_ms(70);

    ping = 0;
    new_rx = 0;
    isrcall = 0;

    init_io();
    serial_init();

    //RCONbits.IPEN = 0;
    PIE1bits.RC1IE = 1;         //Enable RX Interrupt
    INTCONbits.PEIE = 1;        // Enable peripheral interrupt
    INTCONbits.GIE = 1;         // enable global interrupt

    pwm_init();

    ready = 0;

    while (1) {
    __delay_ms(10);
    isrcall = 0;
    ping = 0;
    if (ready){
        LATCbits.LATC2 = 1;
    }

        if (new_rx == 1)            //got our string...
        {
            if (strstr(ctxt, "GPRMC"))  // && ready
            {
                gprmc = 1;
                strncpy((char*)wstr, (char*)ctxt, sizeof(ctxt));
                gettime();
            }
            new_rx=0;              //finished with GPS string
        }


    if (gprmc){
        sendtime();
    }
    gpgga = 0;
    gprmc = 0;
    }
}
C Electronics GPS Microcontrollers PIC

GPS on the PIC 18F26K22

I was asked to create a box that notified by LED if you were too far off a N/S or E/W course. I failed, I doubted the specified GPS accuracy/drift as my Garmin seems to stay pretty steady.. perhaps that’s some integration in the processing?

I started with one of the 18F26K22 TAUTIC development boards I bought from him off Tindie; They’re nice little breadboarding microcontrollers… I’ve recommended them before. I had purchased some GPS modules I got from eBay, so check .. they all have TTL NMEA output, some with 1PPS… and finally some tidbits I picked up out of my parts collection. Wrote some code.. tested it and found my drifting issue. After pondering the number 42 a while, I decided there was no sense in continuing because every idea I had meant something in the specification of the project was out.

I’m not going to go deep into explanation of the code since the project didn’t work but like all failures I learned something. I also expanded my knowledge of XC8 which was nice..  I’ve actively been coding in XC8 for a few months now; in some ways I miss ASM but XC8 does shorten the development time (if you don’t count how long it takes me to figure out atol() should have been used instead of atoi().

This project will be converted into a piece of test equipment of sorts. I’ve been meaning to hook a GPS receiver up to my WWVB transmitter and check it out. Of course WWVB is way more accurate … but if you can’t receive WWVB .. you’re up a creek.

 

GPS Receiver and Microcontroller outside locked.
GPS Receiver and Microcontroller outside locked.

Keep in mind this code is un-optimized, and essentially abandoned while I was building the framework. I leave it to you in case you want a jump start on grabbing some data out of a NMEA string.

/*
/*
 * File:   main.c
 * Author: Charles M Douvier
 * Contact at: http://iradan.com / 0xEE.net / @chasxmd
 * Created on April 4th, 2014
 *
 * Target Device: TAUTIC.com dev board / 18F26K22
 *
 * Project: AG GPS Indicator
 * Using a PIC to indicate if you're staying in lat/long "groove" by GPS.
 * *** This is not complete ***
 *
 *
 * Version:
 * 0.1      First build I could prove I had GPS lock
 * 0.2      Output GPS on 232 and position set, no debounce, etc.. abandonded
 */
#ifndef _XTAL_FREQ
#define _XTAL_FREQ 4000000 //4Mhz FRC internal osc
#define __delay_us(x) _delay((unsigned long)((x)*(_XTAL_FREQ/4000000.0)))
#define __delay_ms(x) _delay((unsigned long)((x)*(_XTAL_FREQ/4000.0)))
#endif

#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 


//config bits
#pragma config FOSC=INTIO67, WDTEN=OFF, PWRTEN=OFF, CP0=OFF, CP1=OFF, BOREN=ON
#pragma config STVREN=ON, LVP=OFF, HFOFST=OFF, IESO=OFF, FCMEN=OFF

//WRT=OFF, FOSC=INTOSC, MCLRE=ON

#define _XTAL_FREQ 4000000 //defined for delay

    char    ctxt[120], wstr[120];            //buff NMEA string, working string
    char    str[60], c, latstr, lonstr, setstr;
    char buffer[32] = "none";                        //temp dump
    volatile unsigned int     ping, isrcall, index, reading, new_rx;
    int     ready, gpgga, gprmc, mode;        //gps associated vars
    long long    position_set, position_now;
    //char    *rxdata;
    //volatile unsigned int uart_data;    // use 'volatile' qualifer as this is changed in ISR

/*
 *  Interrupt Service
 */
void interrupt ISR() {

   if (PIR1bits.RCIF){          // see if interrupt caused by incoming data

        isrcall = 0x01;
        char temp;
        temp = RCREG1;     // read the incoming data
        if(temp=='$' && new_rx==0)      //if first char of a GPS string..
        {
            index = 0;                  //reset index
            reading = 1;                //from now on go to else if
        }
        else if(reading == 1)           //in middle of GPS sentence
        {
            ctxt[index] = temp;         //load it up
            index++;                    //increment index
            ping = 1;                   //this is for debugging
            if(index > 50)              //thats more than enough data
                {
                index = 0;              //reset index
                reading = 0;            //no longer storing the string
                new_rx = 1;             //"ding"
                }
        }


   }
}


/*
 * Set up my ports
 */
void init_io(void) {

    INTCONbits.GIE = 0;         //no interruptions please

    LATA = 0x00;

    TRISAbits.TRISA0 = 0; //Onboard LED
    TRISAbits.TRISA1 = 0; //LED
    TRISAbits.TRISA2 = 0; //MCU (ON)
    TRISAbits.TRISA3 = 1; // input
    TRISAbits.TRISA4 = 1; // input
    TRISAbits.TRISA5 = 1; // input
    TRISAbits.TRISA6 = 1; // input
    TRISAbits.TRISA7 = 1; // input


    TRISBbits.TRISB0 = 0; // output
    TRISBbits.TRISB1 = 0; // output
    TRISBbits.TRISB2 = 0; // output
    TRISBbits.TRISB3 = 0; // output
    TRISBbits.TRISB4 = 0; // SCK
    TRISBbits.TRISB5 = 1; // input
    TRISBbits.TRISB6 = 0; // SCK
    TRISBbits.TRISB7 = 1; // input

    LATC = 0x00;

    TRISCbits.TRISC0 = 0; // N/W
    TRISCbits.TRISC1 = 0; // S/E
    TRISCbits.TRISC2 = 0; // GPGGA DETECT
    TRISCbits.TRISC3 = 1; // MODE SELECT (LAT/LONG)
    TRISCbits.TRISC4 = 1; // SET INPUT
    TRISCbits.TRISC5 = 1; // input
    TRISCbits.TRISC6 = 1; // input
    TRISCbits.TRISC7 = 1; // input
    
    ADCON0 = 0b00000000;        //don't need any ADC
    ADCON1 = 0b00000000;        //speed Vref=AVdd, VssRef=AVss

    ANSELA = 0x00;
    ANSELB = 0x00;
    ANSELC = 0x00;
}

void uart_xmit(unsigned int mydata_byte) {  //send a character to the UART
    while(!TXSTA1bits.TRMT);    // make sure buffer full bit is high before transmitting
    TXREG1 = mydata_byte;       // transmit data
}

void uart_write(const char *txt)            //sent a multiple characters
{
    while(*txt != 0) uart_xmit(*txt++);     //this send a string to the TX buffer
                                            //one character at a time
}


void serial_init(void)
{
    //9600 8N1

    
    TXSTA1bits.BRGH=1;       // select low speed Baud Rate 
    TXSTA1bits.TX9=0;        // select 8 data bits
    TXSTA1bits.TXEN = 1;     // enable transmit


    RCSTA1bits.SPEN=1;       // serial port is enabled
    RCSTA1bits.RX9=0;        // select 8 data bits
    RCSTA1bits.CREN=1;       // receive enabled

    SPBRG1=25;  // here is calculated value of SPBRGH and SPBRGL
    SPBRGH1=0;

    PIR1bits.RCIF=0;        // make sure receive interrupt flag is clear

    __delay_ms(50);        // give time for voltage levels on board to settle
    uart_write("RESET");         // transmit some data for testing

}


/*
 *  Append a string with a character
 *  append(str, c);
 */


void append(char* s, char c)
{
        int len = strlen(s);
        s[len] = c;
        s[len+1] = '\0';
}



/*
 *
 * convert the decminal bits of lat or long to integer
 * send over RS-232 for review
 *
 *
 */



void lat(void){
    str[0] = wstr[17];
    str[1] = wstr[18];
    str[2] = wstr[19];
    str[3] = wstr[20];   // .21 is a decimal place
    str[4] = wstr[22];
    str[5] = wstr[23];
    str[6] = wstr[24];
    str[7] = wstr[25];

    position_now = atol(str);

    uart_write(str);
    uart_write(" ");

        //check to set position
    if (PORTCbits.RC4 && ready) {
        position_set = position_now;
    }

    if (position_set){
        if (position_now > (position_set + 3)) {
            LATCbits.LATC1 = 1;
        }   else {
            LATCbits.LATC1 = 0;
        }
        
        if (position_now < (position_set - 3)) {
            LATCbits.LATC0 = 1;
        }   else {
            LATCbits.LATC0 = 0;
        }
    }
        sprintf(buffer, "%lld", position_now);
        uart_write(buffer);
        uart_write(" ");
        sprintf(buffer, "%lld", position_set);
        uart_write(buffer);
    uart_write("\r");
}

void lon(void){
 //not started
}

void determine_mode(void){  //determine lat or long mode
 //not started   
}


int main(void) {

    // set up oscillator control register, using internal OSC at 4MHz.
    OSCCONbits.IRCF = 0x05; //set OSCCON IRCF bits to select OSC frequency 4MHz
    OSCCONbits.SCS = 0x02; //set the SCS bits to select internal oscillator block
    __delay_ms(50);         //lets think about life a bit before proceeding..


    ping = 0;
    new_rx = 0;
    isrcall = 0;
    
    init_io();
    serial_init();

    //RCONbits.IPEN = 0;
    PIE1bits.RC1IE = 1;         //Enable RX Interrupt
    INTCONbits.PEIE = 1;        // Enable peripheral interrupt
    INTCONbits.GIE = 1;         // enable global interrupt

    
    ready = 0;

    while (1) {
    isrcall = 0;
    ping = 0;
    if (ready){
        LATCbits.LATC2 = 1;
    }

    LATAbits.LATA2 = 1;         //startup heartbeat LED
    __delay_ms(1);
    LATAbits.LATA2 = 0;

        if (new_rx == 1)            //got our string...
        {
            if (strstr(ctxt, "GPGGA"))
            {
                gpgga = 1;
                strncpy((char*)wstr, (char*)ctxt, sizeof(ctxt));  
            }
            new_rx=0;              //finished with GPS string
        }

        if (gpgga) {
            LATAbits.LA1 = 0;
            if(ctxt[42] == '1')     //this is the 43rd bit but we didn't drop the $ into the buffer
            {                       //If "$GPGGA" NMEA message has '1' sign in the 43rd
                                    //position it means that tha GPS receiver has a position fix
                                    //
            ready = 1;              //This is my "locked" variable for future code
            LATAbits.LATA1 = 1;     //LOCK LED
            }
        }

    if (ready) {

        if (mode){

        }
        if (!mode) {
            lat();
        }
        
    }
    __delay_ms(149); //delay don't really even need to update this often
    }
}

If you noticed my posts/week is way down.. well it’s summer. This will happen every summer. My daughter is home and so my time gets happily gobbled up by her :) I’ve got a huge backlog of projects.. thankfully the day job has eased off a bunch. I’m working on a 0xEE project which I probably should have been doing today.. but I needed a break. Also I recently found out our annual backpacking trip is going to be a bit more intense; I’ll have to train appropriately .. so less time on the bench. It’ll be this way until September I imagine.

C Electronics Interface RS-485

TIA-485 PIC tutorial

I just finished up a basic tutorial of using TIA-485 (RS-485/EIA-485) with a PIC micro on 0xEE.net.. this will be part one of at least 2 or 3 articles.

 

 0xEE.net PIC Talks RS-485

Electronics

First Hexacopter Flight

Wow, an action packaged summer so far… no much bench-time unfortunately but work has let off and I’m working sub-50 hour weeks again thankfully.  I did get to spend some time this weekend on the bench but really not much. I worked on an article for 0xEE.net and a little fixing for the wife. I did grab my F550 for its first flight (and mine on something larger than one of those micro-quads as well!). I had no intention of filming this… but my wife ended up taking a poor quality video off a cheapo-camera not meant for it. I’m glad she did.. :) I had a visitor.. some dog being walked couple decided to take an interest in the loud flying thing in the air.. it was a little nerve-racking because I didn’t want any accidents but luckily zero problems and no crashing! I can see the appeal of FPV .. it’s a little hard to determine pitch when they get out a bit. I think I’ll have to invest in something like that.

So here is the grainy video of some dog enjoying his day..

Natalie also took an interest in refreshing her soldering skills and was bragging to her uncle she had been soldering since she was four and was better at it than him… I had her soldering one of the waveform generators I made a PCB for without the proper silkscreen.. good times.

IMG_4776

Multirotor Flying Platform

Project: The DJI F550 Hexacopter

My first week back from vacation. My lab needed some re-organizing, I brought back a ton of goodies… tools, etc. too much for the lab so I needed to organize a little better and utilize what space I have a little more efficiently. This is my excuse for being overly absent the last to weeks. I might shoot a revisit of my lab since plenty has changed. I worked on a little EICO Model 324 which I’ll go over once my parts show up.. and I haven’t touched my video. A busy week and next isn’t looking any less busy.

I’m suppose to be working on an RS-485 article but I decided I better go buy my quad with my “birthday money” from my wife. She didn’t know what to get so I got a clever little gift.. but it boiled down to cash for a quad. I stopped by my local hobby store.. no more F450s… but the guy on the other side of the counter talked me into the F550 hex. I bought a bags of goodies and went home for the build.

Below is what I bought: (do NOT use this as a shopping list, it turned out to be incomplete and that TX will not work).

Hexacopter Parts

 

What I bought:

DJI F550 kit

DJI NAZA M-Lite

DX5e

2 cell LiPo

HiTEC X1 multicharger

 

I put it all together and found I forgot (or the sales guy) forgot some way to plug the battery pack to the solder connectors on the F550.. another trip.. another $14. Connector plus adapter for the charger.

programmed it.. but I was having a problem. The NAZA M lite was flashing yellow / orange fast.. well let me save you two hours of trying to figure it out. In my case it turns out the DX5e will not work with the NAZA M Lite because I can not trim my end points on the three position switch. (Control Mode for fail-safe, manual,…) I figured this out by using the calibrator, switching the throttle and Channel 5 on the RX to MC. I could then get past fail-safe and get the motors started.

Oh well.. A trip back tomorrow for the return and a 150$ more for the DX6i or whatever … :(

 

Hexacopter on the bench

 

Analog Electronics Radio

Vacation Tidbits

I’ve returned from vacation and brought back a ton of tidbits to share over the next few weeks.

I left the beautiful Pacific Northwest to work on my ranch house in Meade County, South Dakota. I had a number of projects I hoped to complete while there and got through a fair portion of my list that was mostly filled with “wishful thinking” mini-projects. Not all of these are electronics based but bear with me, there are some items of interest.. no guarantee it’s you who is interested though :) I also hit up an AM site with one of my best friends and scored some goodies!

Water: My artesian well has low flow, this isn’t crippling but it can be a hassle. I’ve installed a water tank with a float that allows the well to fill a tank through a 3/4″ in-ground sprinkler solenoid. When pressure drops and the well booster pump kicks on it sucks every bit of water it can including any air it can find out of a contentiously flowing drain into a stock tank a couple hundred feet down the line. Now I’ll have a reservoir to provide extra water on the fly and filter some slight sand in the water supply.

Pump and Water Tank in the basement
Pump and Water Tank in the basement

Sewer: I had a collapsed sewer line… talk about the shits! :D I thought this was about all I would get done on my vacation as I was going to have to hand dig the line.. it was about 12 wide, 5 foot down. Luck day, I had a good friend stop by and helped me out a bit… that took off a few minutes of rockin’ the shovel.

0198aeb478ff8d171bb83efe889e5a6d8550ffb0df

With all that work out of the way I had some time to meet up with a friend at an AM broadcast site while he was performing some maintenance. I used to apprentice under him but ended up going a different career route. Not sure I made the right choice some days?

I grabbed my Rigol spectrum analyzer (you bring yours with you on vaca as well, right?) and threw a piece of wire into the input about a hundred feet away from the tower… the station is on 810KHz AM.

 

KBHB_wide

marker was obviously not on the peak on the reading above.

KBHB_2

I took a ton of readings, compared mine to a much more expensive SA (very satisfied with the results) as well as taking some readings on a 948MHz STL transmitter.

I scored a nice directional sampling line and a bunch of SMA connectors with coax, a 20 watt digital OTA cable transmitter and a ton of other little goodies while I was at it. I great score. I got a VCXO, some filters, attenuators and just a ton of stuff I’ll check out here and there.

0146ba8c3dea244962dd8398f1370519501a121397

AM Antenna

AM Transmitter

Finally, I’ve got some video to edit and drop on the YouTube channel as well but I’ll get to that in the coming days.

Electronics Hardware Hacking

0xEE.net UART / Weekend Tinkering

We did it,  0xEE.net is live. Our first post is a very detailed look into the PIC UART. This article is a stepping stone for other projects we have lined up. Tell us what you think!

Sunday Morning Tinkering

In other bits I haven’t had a lot of time to do other things, I have been busy building two dev boards and write code for the above mentioned article but my Saturday was spent helping my sister and wife at their yard sale. It came away with a surprise for my daughter and an old Pelco dome camera. Video is a lot more interesting to look at on a scope than it is on an SA.

I also hacked up a super simple camping nightlight for my daughter. We are going camping the weekend after father’s day. I tore a cheap-o handheld temperature gun apart to get the thermopile and had a bunch of spare parts. The battery case and backlighting for the LCD will make a nice nightlight. No switch but she kills the batteries anyways as  her flashlights never get shut off. I’ll have to grab some rechargeables..

camping_nightlight

I hope you all have a pleasant memorial day weekend. I thank all my fallen military service family, and their families for their service and their sacrifice.

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox

Join other followers: